Education is typically divided into three categories: formal education, informal education, and non-formal education.
Formal education is the type that is typically conducted in a classroom setting in an academic institution. This is where students are taught basic skills such as reading and writing, as well as more advanced academic lessons.
Also known as ‘formal learning’, it usually begins in elementary school and culminates in post-secondary education. It is provided by qualified teachers or professors and follows a curriculum.
Informal education, on the other hand, is the type that is done outside the premises of an academic institution. Often, this is when a person learns skills or acquires knowledge from home, when visiting libraries, or browsing educational websites through a device. Learning from the elders in one’s community can also be an important form of informal education.
Such education is often not planned or deliberate, nor does it follow a regimented timetable or a specific curriculum. It is spontaneous and may also be described as a natural form of education.
Non-formal education has qualities similar to both formal and informal education. It follows a timetable and is systemically implemented but not necessarily conducted within a school system. It is flexible in terms of time and curriculum and normally does not have an age limit.
The most common examples of non-formal education include community-based courses, vocational training or short programs that are not facilitated by professional instructors.
4. What are the benefits of education?
If all students in low-income countries acquired basic reading skills before leaving school, entire societies could change dramatically. According to UNESCO, 171 million people
could be lifted out of poverty. But education isn’t just about living above the poverty line. It’s about quality of life, choices at work, and many other benefits, as listed below.
Developing problem-solving skills
The schooling system teaches a person how to make their own decisions by developing critical and logical thinking skills. This prepares children for adulthood when both big and small decisions become a constant part of their daily lives.
For example: coming up with solutions to challenges in the community or planning how to provide for a family.
Self-reliance and empowerment
Knowing how to read, write and do arithmetic is empowering. When a person can read, they can access endless learning and information. When they can calculate expenses and make a budget, they can start a small business. Paired with the ability to form opinions, literacy makes a person become more self-reliant, and gives them confidence.
Promoting equality among individuals
In an ideal world, there is no room for discrimination due to race, gender, religion, social class, or level of literacy. This is where the value of education comes to play. Through education, one can develop strong, well-considered opinions – and learn to respect the views of others. Many experts agree that education is a significant contributor to peace
Stability and financial security
A person’s income is often linked to his or her educational attainment. Around the world, there are more employment opportunities for those who complete high school, earn a degree, diploma or certificate, or go on to post-graduate studies. These can also mean higher salaries.
Economic growth (as a nation)
An educated population is important in building a nation’s economy. According to studies, countries with the highest literacy rates
are more likely to make progress in human and economic development. National economic growth begins with individual economic growth, which is often linked back to education.
In Canada, 70 per cent of jobs
have a college-level reading skill requirement. A separate report
also found that individuals with lower literacy skills are more likely to be unemployed.
Giving back to the community
Once children are educated, they have more ways to make a difference in their communities. Many of the children we serve at World Vision have dreams of making a difference as teachers, doctors, or as part of the government.
Elementary students from Papua New Guinea now have toy kits for recreation time at school. Play helps children solve problems, develop creativity and work as a team. Photo: Nelson Kairi Kurukuru
5. What does World Vision do to make education more accessible for girls and boys?
One of World Vision’s objectives is to make education accessible for girls and boys around the world. We see it as an effective tool to promote sustainable growth for children, their families and the communities that we support.
In 2020, donors sponsored 377,888 children across 44 countries through World Vision Canada alone
. Many of these children are now benefitting from formal education. At least 12,270 children attend after-school literacy activities, while 51,585 adults were educated on child protection.
World Vision has several programs which make education of children and youth a priority. These include Child Sponsorship
, the Raw Hope
initiative and the World Vision Gift Catalogue
. Through these projects, anyone interested in helping fund the education of vulnerable children can participate.
Rosemiah, a young teacher in the Philippines, helps children improve their reading skills through a program called the Culture of Reading. Photo: Ramon Lucas Jimenez
6. How can I contribute toward making education accessible?
Children in Canada have access to free education all the way through high school – but it’s not true everywhere. Below are some of the ways you can help make education accessible for girls and boys around the world.
World Vision is known for our Child Sponsorship
program. It is an initiative where we pool together funds from donors, partners and the Canadian government to provide access to necessities such as nutritious food, clean water, health care and education among others. The program benefits children across 44 countries, emphasizing access to education.
is another program where we strive to make learning possible, even in the world’s most dangerous places. We do more than provide access to life-saving essentials. Raw Hope also includes the creation of safe spaces where girls and boys can play and continue their learning, even when life is in chaos.
World Vision’s online Gift Catalogue
invites donors to choose from many kinds of life-changing gifts–including several focusing on education. You can help by: donating textbooks for children
, distributing school essentials
, donating tech for a community
, and helping send girls to school
While monetary donations are a great way to help, it is not the only option. You can also try volunteering your time by joining groups in your city or neighbourhood. Look for associations accepting volunteer teachers and share your knowledge with children of all ages. Volunteer Canada
has a directory of volunteer centres all over the country. You can also get in touch with World Vision
Canada to learn about volunteering with us.
A boy in Rwanda solves a math equation. Arithmetic can help children learn to save money, create budgets, secure better jobs when they are older and even start small businesses. Photo: Charity Beza Uwase
7. Quick facts about education in Canada and the world
Different countries and regions have different approaches to education, for children and adults. A nation’s wealth – and stability – often affect what they are able to offer. Here are some facts about education in Canada and the rest of the world:
- Education in Canada is generally overseen and funded by governments (provincial, territorial and federal).
- Kindergarten in Canada is mandatory in most provinces and optional in a few. Starting in Grade 1, education is mandatory until a child is at least 16. The only exceptions are when families adhere to certain requirements for home schooling.
- Canada offers a Kindergarten to Grade 12 educational system, along with some other countries, such as the United States, Australia, Germany, Japan, Singapore and the Philippines.
- Canada once had a highly controversial residential school system. More than 150,000 First Nations, Métis and Inuit children were forced to attend church-run, government-funded schools between the 1870s and 1997.
- In 2016, some 750 million adults in the world still lacked basic reading and writing skills. Two-thirds of them were women.
Central Asia, Europe and North America have the highest literacy rates for youth aged 15-24 at nearly 100 per cent. The sub-Saharan region of Africa has the lowest, at 75 per cent. The criteria for assessing literacy vary between countries.